If you’ve ever followed a race training plan, you’ll know it’s not just about running; it’s about running strategically. That’s why nearly every plan includes easy runs, long runs, speed work, tempo runs, recovery runs – it’s enough running to fill at least five or six days a week, and it can eventually do a number on your body.
The reason training plans call for so much running is the rule of specificity. ‘Whatever you want to get good at, you have to do that type of activity to a high degree,’ explains Ian Klein, a specialist in exercise physiology, cross-training and injury prevention at Ohio University, US. Translation: to be a better runner, you must run more. Each specific running workout has a purpose –from developing fast-twitch muscle fibres for speed to building your endurance to helping your tendons, ligaments, joints and bones adapt to the stress of running – which is why it’s important to include all of them in a training plan.
That said, there’s a little flexibility when it comes to the recovery run. This low-intensity activity, which is generally done at less than 70% of your maximum heart rate, is crucial for maintaining the base of your aerobic fitness and developing oxygen efficiency in the muscles, says Klein. But if you’re injury-prone, dealing with any small niggles or joint pain, or even if you’re just approaching burnout, it’s one workout that you can take off the road or treadmill and complete on another piece of equipment: the cross trainer.
How is using the cross trainer different from running?
The machine was literally invented to mimic the motions of running without nearly the same kind of impact forces that are caused by running – so you’re going to get a more running-specific cross-training workout than you would by exercising on a bike, turbo trainer or swimming in a pool. But ‘running’ on the cross trainer ‘decreases the weight-bearing and muscle-pounding that running produces because it’s a much lower-impact exercise,’ says exercise physiologist Todd Buckingham.
What the cross trainer does is ‘takeout the eccentric contraction, that moment when you land and prevent your body from collapsing’, says Klein. That’s an integral part of running, so you do need that training; but if you get too much of it, he adds, your muscles can fatigue and break down under all that stress, which can lead to injury.
The cross trainer also cuts out the push-off phase of the gait cycle because your feet never leave the pedals. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, says Juan Delgado, director of Sports Science at the NY SportsScience Lab in New York, US. When you’re running, the tibialis anterior muscles (which are responsible for dorsiflexion of the feet) are almost never under maximum tension –which makes them more susceptible to overuse and makes you much more prone to shin splints and stress reactions, Delgado says. But when you’re maintaining constant contact with the cross trainer pedal, ‘these muscles will have better isokinetic and isometric contractions and can reach maximum tension while becoming stronger without the impact of the lift-off/heel strike motion’, he says.
lus, the cross trainer is more of a complete workout, equally recruiting the upper and lower body with its pendulum motion. ‘By using your bodyweight as resistance, it becomes an excellent way to prepare your body for the rigours of regular running, since the muscles engaged in running can become stronger and more accustomed to carrying your body weight without the impact of hitting the floor constantly, reducing your injury risk,’ says Delgado.
What are the benefits of using a cross trainer as a runner?
It’s a low-impact activity, so it’ll feel easier than a run of similar intensity. ‘To combat this, use the cross trainer for one-and-a-half to two times the duration of your run,’ says Buckingham. For example, a half-hour run would be equivalent to a 45-minute to one-hour cross trainer session.
Spending time on the cross trainer can be helpful on recovery days, too, especially if you have a tough time sticking to a recovery pace (or less than 70% of your maximum heart rate). It’s actually pretty hard to get your heart rate up on the cross trainer (without maxing out resistance), which means you’ll stay in the easy, low-intensity zone you need to be into get the benefits of that workout.
It can also improve blood flow to the muscles without causing the muscle fibre damage that running does, so could help speed up recovery time between hard running sessions and allow you to complete these days at a higher intensity, leading to greater performance gains, says Buckingham.
That’s why you should always do your key workouts – speedwork, tempo runs and race-pace runs – as running efforts, says Klein. No matter how closely the cross trainer was designed to mimic running, anyone who has ever stepped on one knows it’s not a perfect substitute. Consider it a valuable tool in your arsenal, especially on days you need to slow it down or recover, but not as a replacement for running.
Best home cross trainers
Like most home gym equipment, cross trainers range from basic models to gym-quality machines. As with treadmills, to some extent you get what you pay for. Although you can get a good workout from lower-priced models with fewer settings, having more options will keep your training session interesting and challenging.
The top machines offer a broad range of adjustable resistance – often with more than 20 levels. They also include more adjustability, including auto-controlled incline height and stride length. Although some models cost as little as £200, they tend to break down more quickly. A higher-quality cross trainer will provide a quieter, smoother ride. Just be sure to consider your space and budget when shopping.
1. ProFormCarbon HIIT L6